The tragic here-origins, examples, evolution, role in literature?

origins- it first appeared in greak literature, the most popular being Sophocles and Euripides.

example- it is the protagonist of a tragedy and based on the outline that aristotle defined. The outline is

that the hero of a tragedy must evoke a sense of pity or fear within the audience, stating that “the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity.”[2] In essence, the focus of the hero should not be the loss of his prosperity. He establishes the concept that pity is an emotion that must be elicited when, through his actions, the character receives undeserved misfortune, while the emotion of fear must be felt by the audience when they contemplate that such misfortune could possibly befall themselves in similar situations. Aristotle explains such change of fortune “should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad.” Such misfortune is visited upon the tragic hero “not through vice or depravity but by some error of judgment.” This error, or hamartia, refers to a flaw in the character of the hero, or a mistake made by the character.

An example of a mistake made by a tragic hero can be found in Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex. In the story, the character of Oedipus is given a prophecy that he will murder his own father and marry his own mother. Although he goes to great lengths to avoid fulfilling the prophecy, Oedipus learns that the life of a man he took, Laius, was actually that of his own father, and that the woman to which he is married, Jocasta, is actually his own mother.

Creon of Sophocles’ Antigone is another notable example of a tragic hero. Polyneices and his brother, Eteocles, were kings, and the former wanted more power, so he left and assembled an army from a neighboring city. They attacked and the two brothers killed each other. Through Creon’s law forbidding the burial of Polyneices, Creon dooms his own family. Other examples provided by Aristotle include Thyestes.

Therefore, the Aristotelian hero is characterized as virtuous but not “eminently good,” which suggests a noble or important personage who is upstanding and morally inclined while nonetheless subject to human error. Aristotle’s tragic heroes are flawed individuals who commit, without evil intent, great wrongs or injuries that ultimately lead to their misfortune, often followed by tragic realization of the true nature of events that led to this destiny.[3] This means the hero still must be – to some degree – morally grounded. The usual irony in Greek tragedy is that the hero is both extraordinarily capable and highly moral (in the Greek honor-culture sense of being duty-bound to moral expectations), and it is these exact, highly-admirable qualities that lead the hero into tragic circumstances. The tragic hero is snared by his or her own greatness: extraordinary competence, a righteous passion for duty, and (often) the arrogance associated with greatness (hubris).

catharsis- what is it, how is it achieved, why is it achieved, history, evolution?

what is it? the process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed emotions.

why is it achieved? it can be achieved as part of modern day therapy. But i believe in the context this is asking possibly. When the characters lose everything as a way to finally be free? maybe

Shakespeare classical education-  its influence on his work, what was he exposed to?

they believed his knowledge was secondary because he lacked basic latin knowledge and their was some aspects of him not knowing certain things that if he was educated on it properly he would’ve known.

The genre of tragedy- origins evolution importance?

 

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Writing